This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.
toupper, toupper_l — transliterate lowercase characters to uppercase
int toupper(int c);
int toupper_l(int c, locale_t locale);
For toupper(): The functionality described on this reference page is aligned with the ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described here and the ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of POSIX.1‐2008 defers to the ISO C standard.
The toupper() and toupper_l() functions have as a domain a type int, the value of which is representable as an unsigned char or the value of EOF. If the argument has any other value, the behavior is undefined.
If the argument of toupper() or toupper_l() represents a lowercase letter, and there exists a corresponding uppercase letter as defined by character type information in the current locale or in the locale represented by locale, respectively (category LC_CTYPE), the result shall be the corresponding uppercase letter.
All other arguments in the domain are returned unchanged.
The behavior is undefined if the locale argument to toupper_l() is the special locale object LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE or is not a valid locale object handle.
Upon successful completion, toupper() and toupper_l() shall return the uppercase letter corresponding to the argument passed; otherwise, they shall return the argument unchanged.
No errors are defined.
The following sections are informative.
The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Chapter 7, Locale, <ctype.h>, <locale.h>
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .
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