# powl (3)

# NAME

pow, powf, powl - power functions# SYNOPSIS

#include <math.h>

Link withdouble pow(doublex, doubley);float powf(floatx, floaty);long double powl(long doublex, long doubley);

*-lm*.

Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see

**feature_test_macros**(7)):

**powf**(),

**powl**():

_ISOC99_SOURCE || _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L

|| /* Since glibc 2.19: */ _DEFAULT_SOURCE

|| /* Glibc versions <= 2.19: */ _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE

|| /* Since glibc 2.19: */ _DEFAULT_SOURCE

|| /* Glibc versions <= 2.19: */ _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE

# DESCRIPTION

These functions return the value of*x*raised to the power of

*y*.

# RETURN VALUE

On success, these functions return the value of*x*to the power of

*y*. If

*x*is a finite value less than 0, and

*y*is a finite noninteger, a domain error occurs, and a NaN is returned. If the result overflows, a range error occurs, and the functions return

**HUGE_VAL**,

**HUGE_VALF**, or

**HUGE_VALL**, respectively, with the mathematically correct sign. If result underflows, and is not representable, a range error occurs, and 0.0 is returned. Except as specified below, if

*x*or

*y*is a NaN, the result is a NaN. If

*x*is +1, the result is 1.0 (even if

*y*is a NaN). If

*y*is 0, the result is 1.0 (even if

*x*is a NaN). If

*x*is +0 (-0), and

*y*is an odd integer greater than 0, the result is +0 (-0). If

*x*is 0, and

*y*greater than 0 and not an odd integer, the result is +0. If

*x*is -1, and

*y*is positive infinity or negative infinity, the result is 1.0. If the absolute value of

*x*is less than 1, and

*y*is negative infinity, the result is positive infinity. If the absolute value of

*x*is greater than 1, and

*y*is negative infinity, the result is +0. If the absolute value of

*x*is less than 1, and

*y*is positive infinity, the result is +0. If the absolute value of

*x*is greater than 1, and

*y*is positive infinity, the result is positive infinity. If

*x*is negative infinity, and

*y*is an odd integer less than 0, the result is -0. If

*x*is negative infinity, and

*y*less than 0 and not an odd integer, the result is +0. If

*x*is negative infinity, and

*y*is an odd integer greater than 0, the result is negative infinity. If

*x*is negative infinity, and

*y*greater than 0 and not an odd integer, the result is positive infinity. If

*x*is positive infinity, and

*y*less than 0, the result is +0. If

*x*is positive infinity, and

*y*greater than 0, the result is positive infinity. If

*x*is +0 or -0, and

*y*is an odd integer less than 0, a pole error occurs and

**HUGE_VAL**,

**HUGE_VALF**, or

**HUGE_VALL**, is returned, with the same sign as

*x*. If

*x*is +0 or -0, and

*y*is less than 0 and not an odd integer, a pole error occurs and +

**HUGE_VAL**, +

**HUGE_VALF**, or +

**HUGE_VALL**, is returned.

# ERRORS

See**math_error**(7) for information on how to determine whether an error has occurred when calling these functions. The following errors can occur:

- Domain error:
*x*is negative, and*y*is a finite noninteger *errno*is set to**EDOM**. An invalid floating-point exception (**FE_INVALID**) is raised.

- Pole error:
*x*is zero, and*y*is negative *errno*is set to**ERANGE**(but see BUGS). A divide-by-zero floating-point exception (**FE_DIVBYZERO**) is raised.

- Range error: the result overflows
*errno*is set to**ERANGE**. An overflow floating-point exception (**FE_OVERFLOW**) is raised.

- Range error: the result underflows
*errno*is set to**ERANGE**. An underflow floating-point exception (**FE_UNDERFLOW**) is raised.

# ATTRIBUTES

For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see**attributes**(7).

Interface | Attribute | Value |

pow (), powf (), powl () | Thread safety | MT-Safe |

# CONFORMING TO

C99, POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008. The variant returning*double*also conforms to SVr4, 4.3BSD, C89.

# BUGS

On 64-bits,**pow**() may be more than 10,000 times slower for some (rare) inputs than for other nearby inputs. This affects only

**pow**(), and not

**powf**() nor

**powl**(). In glibc 2.9 and earlier, when a pole error occurs,

*errno*is set to

**EDOM**instead of the POSIX-mandated

**ERANGE**. Since version 2.10, glibc does the right thing. If

*x*is negative, then large negative or positive

*y*values yield a NaN as the function result, with

*errno*set to

**EDOM**, and an invalid (

**FE_INVALID**) floating-point exception. For example, with

**pow**(), one sees this behavior when the absolute value of

*y*is greater than about 9.223373e18. In version 2.3.2 and earlier, when an overflow or underflow error occurs, glibc's

**pow**() generates a bogus invalid floating-point exception (

**FE_INVALID**) in addition to the overflow or underflow exception.

# SEE ALSO

**cbrt**(3),

**cpow**(3),

**sqrt**(3)