tr (1)

Quick Reference

Translate characters - run replacements based on single characters and character sets.

  • Replace all occurrences of a character in a file, and print the result:

tr {{find_characters}} {{replace_characters}} < {{filename}}

  • Map each character of the first set to the corresponding character of the second set:

tr 'abcd' 'jkmn' < {{filename}}

  • Delete all occurrences of the specified set of characters from the input:

tr -d '{{input_characters}}'

  • Compress a series of identical characters to a single character:

tr -s '{{input_characters}}'

  • Translate the contents of the file to upper-case and print result:

tr "[:lower:]" "[:upper:]" < {{filename}}

  • Strip out non-printable characters from the file and print result:

tr -cd "[:print:]" < {{filename}}

NAME

tr - translate or delete characters

SYNOPSIS

tr [ OPTION]... SET1 [SET2]

DESCRIPTION

Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input, writing to standard output.
-c, -C, --complement
use the complement of SET1
-d, --delete
delete characters in SET1, do not translate
-s, --squeeze-repeats
replace each sequence of a repeated character that is listed in the last specified SET, with a single occurrence of that character
-t, --truncate-set1
first truncate SET1 to length of SET2
--help
display this help and exit
--version
output version information and exit
SETs are specified as strings of characters. Most represent themselves. Interpreted sequences are:
\NNN
character with octal value NNN (1 to 3 octal digits)
\\
backslash
\a
audible BEL
\b
backspace
\f
form feed
\n
new line
\r
return
\t
horizontal tab
\v
vertical tab
CHAR1-CHAR2
all characters from CHAR1 to CHAR2 in ascending order
[CHAR*]
in SET2, copies of CHAR until length of SET1
[CHAR*REPEAT]
REPEAT copies of CHAR, REPEAT octal if starting with 0
[:alnum:]
all letters and digits
[:alpha:]
all letters
[:blank:]
all horizontal whitespace
[:cntrl:]
all control characters
[:digit:]
all digits
[:graph:]
all printable characters, not including space
[:lower:]
all lower case letters
[:print:]
all printable characters, including space
[:punct:]
all punctuation characters
[:space:]
all horizontal or vertical whitespace
[:upper:]
all upper case letters
[:xdigit:]
all hexadecimal digits
[=CHAR=]
all characters which are equivalent to CHAR
Translation occurs if -d is not given and both SET1 and SET2 appear. -t may be used only when translating. SET2 is extended to length of SET1 by repeating its last character as necessary. Excess characters of SET2 are ignored. Only [:lower:] and [:upper:] are guaranteed to expand in ascending order; used in SET2 while translating, they may only be used in pairs to specify case conversion. -s uses the last specified SET, and occurs after translation or deletion.

AUTHOR

Written by Jim Meyering.

REPORTING BUGS

GNU coreutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
 
Report tr translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>

SEE ALSO

Full documentation at: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/tr>
 
or available locally via: info '(coreutils) tr invocation'

Information

Source
Coreutils
OS/version
GNU coreutils 8.29.13-0a854
Source updated
December 2, 2018
Page created
February 9, 2018
Page generated
December 2, 2018